plantain seed

Plantain Seed:Uses and Clinical Application

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Pinyin: Chē Qián Zǐ

Aliases: Plantain, Shrimp Toads, Pig Ears, Phoenix Eyes

It is the seeds of the plantain plant.

Latin plant animal mineral name:

Plantago asiatica L. Plantago major L. Plantago depressa Willd.

Harvesting and storage:

Cut off the yellow ripe fruit ears one after another from June to October, dry them in the sun, rub out the seeds, and remove impurities.

original form

  1. Plantago perennial herb:

with stems up to 50cm. With fibrous roots; with long stalk, almost as long as or longer than the blade, the base is enlarged; Irregular wavy shallow teeth, usually with 5-7 arcuate veins. Several flower stems, 12-50cm high, angular, sparsely hairy, and the spikes are 2/5-1/2 of the flower stem; the flowers are pale green with one persistent bract per flower, triangular; calyx 4, slightly at the base Whole, elliptic or oval, persistent; corolla small, membranous, corolla tube ovate, apex 4 lobes triangular, roll outwards; stamens 4, inserted near the base of corolla tube, alternate with corolla lobes, Anther oblong, apex with triangular protrusion, filament linear; pistil 1; ovary superior, oval, 2-loculed (pseudo-4-loculed), style 1, linear hairy. Capsule ovate-conical, peripherally cleft about 2/5 below when mature, persistent below 2/5. Seeds 4-8 or 9, nearly oval, dark brown. The flowering period is June-September, and the fruiting period is October.

2. Big Plantain:

 The difference from Plantain is: the leaves are ovate or broadly ovate, 6-10cm long, 3-6cm wide, the apex is blunt, the base is round and broad wedge-shaped; the base of the petiole is often enlarged or sheathed. The spikes are 3-10cm long, and the flowers are closely arranged. 7-15 seeds, black.

  • The difference:

The difference between the flat car and the first two is that the plant has a cylindrical taproot. Leaf blade elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, narrow at base. Calyx lobes about as long as bracts. Capsule conical. Seeds oblong, brown-black.

Character identification

1) Psyllium seeds are slightly oval or irregular oblong, slightly flat, about 2mm long and 1mm wide. The surface is light brown or brown, slightly rough and uneven. Microscopic longitudinal lines can be seen under the magnifying microscope, and there are light yellow concave hilums in the middle of the slightly flat side. Hard in texture, off-white on the cut surface. The seeds are put into water, and the outer skin has mucus released. Gas slightly, chewing with mucus.

2) Psyllium seeds are triangular or rhomboid, with small grains, 0.88-1.60mm long and 0.55-0.90mm wide. The surface is brown or tan, the ventral bulge is higher, the umbilical point is white, and it is mostly located at the center or one end of the ventral bulge.

3) Seeds are oblong, slightly flat, 0.90-1.75mm long and 0.60-0.98mm wide. The surface is black laurel color or brown, the back is slightly raised, the ventral surface is relatively flat, and there is an obvious white concave point in the center to close the hilum. The grains are large, uniform and full, and the color is reddish brown.

Microscopic identification Seed (at the umbilical point) cross section:

1) The outer epidermal cell wall of Psyllium seed coat is extremely thin and is a mucus layer. Below it is the pigment layer, the dorsal cells are triangular-like or slightly square, the cut section is 24-36μm long, and the radial length is 16-36μ; , the radial length is 20-32 μm, and the radial length is 20-32 μm. Endosperm cells have 4-5 rows, with slightly thicker walls, and more tangentially elongated ones on the medial side of the ventral dorsal surface. Cotyledon cells contain aleurone grains and lipids and oils.

2) The difference between psyllium and psyllium: the ventral surface has obvious bulge, the pigment layer cells are elongated radially, the tangential length is 8-16 μm, and the radial length is 16-32 μm; the back is slightly raised, the pigment layer cells are elongated tangentially, and the Length 24-60μm, radial length 14-24μm.

3) The difference between the front and the former two: the cells in front of the pigment layer are square or rectangular, the outer wall is flat, tangential length 12-28μm, radial length 20-24μm; cells on the ventral surface are tangentially narrow, 10- 18μm, radial length 20-28μm.

chemical composition

Plantago seeds contain aucubin [1], plantago-mulilage A [2], racemic-plantago-side [3], alloside Geniposidic acid [4], plantenolic acid, succinic acid, adenine, choline and 10.43% fatty oil [5, 6], β- Sitosterol (β-sitosterol), β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (β-sitosteryl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) [7].

Plantago seeds contain aucubin, isoquercitrin, succinic acid[8], vitamin B1[9], A[10].

pharmacological action

  1. Diuretic effect:

Oral administration of psyllium decoction 10g for normal people has a diuretic effect, but the total volume of the decoction and the daily water intake are not recorded, and there is no strict control. Normal people and rabbits have no obvious diuretic effect when taking psyllium seed decoction. Plantain seeds also have no diuretic effect.

2. Effect on the joint capsule:

A small amount of psyllium decoction was injected into the knee joint cavity of rabbits several times. Synovial inflammation occurred first, followed by hyperplasia of connective tissue. Therefore, it is possible to restore the original tension in the relaxed joint capsule.

It Can be used for temporomandibular joint subluxation. Plantagoovata seeds of Indian oviparous plantain contain a large amount of mucilage, which can be used as a bulk laxative and has the effect of lowering serum cholesterol in humans. Alcohol extracts can reduce blood pressure in anesthetized dogs and cats, inhibit isolated rabbit hearts and frog hearts, excite the intestinal tract of rabbits, rats and guinea pigs and can be inhibited by atropine, so it is believed to have cholinergic effects. 0.05-0.2ml of 5% psyllium decoction is injected into the knee joint cavity of rabbits, which can promote the proliferation of synovial connective tissue in the joint capsule, thereby restoring the original tension of the relaxed joint capsule. Psyllium decoction did not show diuretic effect on normal people, rabbits and rats.

Processed plantain seeds:

Pick out impurities, sieve out mud and empty particles. Salt psyllium: Take clean psyllium, put it in a pot and fry it on low heat until it puffs up, spray with salt water, fry it again, take it out, and let it dry.

 (50kg of plantain seeds, 1kg and 8 taels of salt, add appropriate amount of boiling water to dissolve and clarify) “Outline”: Where plantain seeds are used, they must be washed with water to remove the sediment and dried in the sun. Stir-fry it in soup; put it into pills or powder, soak it in wine overnight, steam it until it is cooked, and grind it to rot, make a cake, dry it in the sun, and bake it.

Return to the Lung; Liver; Kidney; Bladder

Nature and taste sweet; light; slightly cold in nature


Take it with caution for those with internal injury and fatigue, depression of yang qi, slippery essence of kidney deficiency and no dampness and heat in the interior.

Indications of function

It can clear heat and diuresis, infiltrate dampness and stop diarrhea, clear liver and improve eyesight, relieve cough and resolve phlegm;

it is used for dysuria, stranguria, leucorrhea, blood in urine, diarrhea due to summer dampness, cough with excessive phlegm, damp arthralgia, red eyes and nebulous disorder; External use of psyllium can treat wet sores, pustules, and children with head sores.


Oral administration: decoction, 5-15g, packed for frying; or into pills or powder. External use: appropriate amount, decocted in water for washing or ground into powder for application.

Clinical application

Treatment of simple dyspepsia in children

The psyllium is fried and crushed and taken orally. 0.5 g each time for 4 to 12 months, about 1 g for 1 to 2 years old, 3 to 4 times a day.

Observation of 63 cases, 53 cases of diarrhea stopped after taking the medicine, stool returned to normal, an average of 2.1 days to cure; 6 cases of reduced stool, an average of 2.5 days to improve; 4 cases of invalid. Psyllium may contribute to the cure of this disease due to its diuretic effect and promoting increased secretion of digestive juices.

Treatment of hypertension

Daily use of psyllium 15g (addition to 30g if the effect is not obvious after 1 month), decoction 2 times, and drink as tea. After 3-4 months of treatment in 50 patients, 23 (46%) systolic blood pressures were reduced to less than 150 mmHg, and 25 (50%) diastolic blood pressures were reduced to less than 90 mmHg. Except for stomach discomfort in individual cases, there were no other adverse reactions during the treatment.

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