single grass root, grass paw, salsify, one-legged currant grass, cricket grass, wind moss grass, cold rice grass, small ground brown root, ground brown root, yellow grass ginseng, one-legged yellow grass, one-legged green grass root, One-legged silk grass, sky palm, mountain palm, soil white peony, flat liver potato, pan palm, mountain orchid, Curcuma ginseng, millennium brown, mountain brown skin, sharp blade grass
Common Curculigo Rhizome, Rhizome of Common Curculigo
Medicinal material base source: It is the rhizome of Curculaceae.
Latin plant animal mineral name:
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.[C.orchioides Gaertn.var.ninor Benth.]
Harvesting and storage:
Curcuma chinensis grows for 2 years after transplanting, and is excavated after the seedlings are poured in October to the end of spring before germination. Dig up all the rhizomes, shake off the soil, remove the residual leaves and fibrous roots and dry them in the sun.
original form Curcuma, perennial herb. The rhizome is nearly cylindrical and straight, about 1cm in diameter, up to 30cm long, with brown outer skin; fibrous roots are often clustered, endoplasmic, with annular horizontal stripes, up to 6cm long; aerial stems are not obvious. Leaf basal; leaf blade linear, linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, 10-45cm long, 5-25mm wide, apex long and acuminate, base extending into petioles, leaf veins obvious, both sides scattered sparsely pubescent or glabrous. The flower stem is very short, 67-cm long, mostly hidden in the base of the sheath-like petiole, and also hairy;
The bracts are lanceolate, 2.5-5cm long, membranous, ciliate; the racemes are more or less corymbose , usually with 4-6 flowers; flowers yellow, about 1cm in diameter, linear in the lower part, 6-lobed in the upper part, lobes lanceolate, 8-12mm long, 2.5-3mm wide, the back of the outer ring is sometimes scattered villous; stamens 6 , about 1/2 of the length of the perianth lobes
The filaments are 1.5-2.5mm long, and the anthers are 2-4mm long; the stigma is 3-lobed, the split part is longer than the style, the ovary is narrow and long, the apex has a long beak, and the beak is 7.5 long mm, sparsely hairy. The berries are nearly fusiform, 1.2-1.5cm long and 6mm wide, with a long beak at the apex. Seeds bright black, with longitudinal ridges on the surface, with beaks. Flowering and fruiting period from April to September.
Cultivation Biological characteristics
Slightly drought and shade tolerant. It is advisable to choose low hillside or flat land, deep soil layer, loose and fertile sandy loam cultivation. Not suitable for planting in low-lying areas. Cultivation techniques
Propagation by seeds and rhizomes. Seed propagation, seedling transplanting method: From September to October, select the mother plant that has bloomed in the current year, smash the surrounding soil, pick the fruit from the leaf sheath, rub out the seeds, wash them, and mix them in slightly moist fine sand for storage.
Nursing seedlings in March-April, ditch and drill on the seedbed with a row spacing of 30cm, and cover with fine soil, with a thickness of about 1cm. The amount of seeds used per 1hm2 is 30kg. After the seedlings are unearthed, timely weeding, drainage, and regular topdressing.
After cultivating for 2 years, plant 3-4 seedlings in each hole according to the row spacing of 25cm × 20cm before the seedlings emerge in spring.
Propagation of rhizomes:
Cut the rhizomes into 2cm long pieces, and it is not advisable to plant them upside down when planting in the seedbed. It can be transplanted after 1-2 years of cultivation. Field management After emergence, apply light human and animal manure water or a small amount of nitrogen fertilizer in time, and then cultivating and weeding 3-4 times. After cultivating and weeding before overwintering, top dressing once. In the spring and summer of the second year, cultivating and weeding and topdressing are required.
Rhizome cylindrical, slightly curved, 3-10cm long, 4-8mm in diameter. The surface is dark brown or tan, rough, with longitudinal grooves and transverse wrinkles and coarse root scars in the form of pores. The texture is hard and brittle, easy to break, the section is slightly flat, slightly horny, light brown or tan, darker near the center, and has a dark ring. The gas is slightly fragrant, and the taste is slightly bitter and acrid. The best ones are thick and dark brown on the surface. Microscopic identification Transverse section of rhizome: 4-7 columns of cork cells on the outside. The cortex is broad, with a few root traces of vascular bundles;
The endothelium is obvious. The vascular bundles in the central column are scattered and densely arranged near the inner cortex; the vascular bundles are woody or outer tough. Mucus cells are scattered in the basic tissue, which are round, 60-200 μm in diameter, and contain calcium oxalate needle crystal bundles, about 50-180 μm long. The parenchyma cells are filled with starch granules.
Toxicity Mice were given a maximum volume of curcuma leaching 150g crude drug/kg once, and no one died within 7 days, indicating that the toxicity of curcuma was very low.
It mainly contains curculigoside, curcumin saponin, curculin, alkaloids, sterols and various long-chain aliphatic compounds.
- Effects on immune function:
1.1. Effects on phagocytic function of macrophages: Mice were given 10, 20 g/kg of Curcuma 70% alcohol infusion, once a day for 7 consecutive days, after administration On the 5th day, 2ml of 0.4% liver glycogen was intraperitoneally injected, and 1 hour after the last administration, 1ml of 2% chicken erythrocyte suspension was intraperitoneally injected, and the mice were sacrificed 2 hours later. Phagocytosis was determined according to the literature (Zhang Yunfen et al., Journal of Beijing Medical College, 1979). The results showed that Curculigo can significantly increase the phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index of peritoneal macrophages in mice compared with the control group.
1.2. Effects on the percentage of T lymphocytes in normal and immunosuppressed mice: The percentage of T lymphocytes in mice was determined by esterase method (China Medical Journal, Department of Embryology, Nanjing Railway Medical College, 1980). The results showed that Curculus chinensis could not increase the percentage of T lymphocytes in normal mice, but had a significant effect on the decrease of T lymphocytes in mice whose immune function was inhibited by cyclophosphamide.
1.3. Curcuma curcuma water extract can promote the production of antibodies and prolong its efficacy. Curculigoside promotes the proliferation of macrophages and improves their phagocytic function, which can be considered to enhance immune function.
2. The effect on the central nervous system: 2.1. The effect on the sleep time of pentobarbital sodium: 30 minutes after intraperitoneal injection of curcumin infusion 10g/kg to mice, intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital sodium 40mg/kg, The sleep time of the mice was recorded. The results showed that the average sleep time of the mice in the administration group and the control group (normal saline) was 304.9±24.2 and 63.4±11.6 (minutes), respectively. It was proved that Curculigo can significantly prolong sleep time (P<0.001).
2.2. Influence on convulsions induced by picrotoxin: 30 minutes after the mice were injected with Curcuma currant, picrotoxin 200 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected, and the latency time of clonic convulsions in mice was recorded. The results showed that the latencies of convulsion occurred in the Curculigo group and the control group were 24.38±3.78 and 7.57±0.63 minutes, respectively, and the difference between the two groups was very significant (P<0.001). It shows that Curcuma chinensis can obviously delay the incubation period of convulsions in mice induced by picrotoxin.
2.3. Litholine contained in Curcuma chinensis, given intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg to rats, can significantly prolong the incubation period of its conditioned reflex, partially disappear and then recover the positive conditioned reflex. Sedative effect, the dose of 12mg/kg can prolong the hypnotic time of pentobarbital, and has significant analgesic and antipyretic effects.
3. Effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function: 3.1. Effects on pituitary-ovarian endocrine function in normal rats: 35 normal female rats, weighing 150-200g, were randomly divided into 8 groups: Curcuma curcas group , Dodder group, Morinda officinalis group, Shudi group, Cistanche deserticola group, Epimedium group, Lycium barbarum group and control group. The drug group (decoction) was administered by gavage, 1ml/100g body weight, twice a day, for 5 days. The control group was given the same amount of normal saline. The animals were treated on the 6th day, and 1 ml of blood was collected from the abdominal aorta under anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital, and the plasma was separated and reserved for the determination of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH).
The anterior pituitary gland, uterus and ovary were removed and weighed, and the ovary was immediately put into frozen Tris-HCl buffer for the determination of chorionic gonadotropin/luteinizing hormone receptors. The results showed that the weight of the anterior pituitary, the weight of the ovary, and the weight of the uterus in the rats were significantly increased (P<0.01), but the level of luteinizing hormone in the plasma remained unchanged. The specific binding force of gonadotropin/luteinizing hormone receptor in the medication group was also significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01).
3.2. Effects of pituitary gland on luteinizing-releasing hormone responsiveness in ovariectomized rats: The experimental design was based on the method of Johnson JH and Davis CL (1981). Thirty-five adult healthy female rats, weighing 150-200 g, were removed from both ovaries under ether anesthesia. After 1 week, they were randomly divided into 8 groups, 7 groups were the corresponding medication groups, and 1 group was the control group.
Oral administration twice a day, 1ml/100g body weight, for 5 days; the control group received the same amount of normal saline. At 8:00 a.m. on the 6th day, anesthetize with sodium pentobarbital (50mg/kg) subcutaneously. After 30 minutes, draw 0.4ml of blood from the abdominal vein (heparin anticoagulation), and then inject D-propionate-luteinizing body through the saphenous vein.
Hormone release (100ng/100g body weight). At 30 minutes and 90 minutes after the injection of luteinizing-releasing hormone, 0.4 ml of blood was collected from the abdominal vena cava. Centrifugal separation was performed three times, and the plasma of the blood samples was reserved for LH assay to determine the pituitary gland’s response to LH secretion after LH injection. The results showed that the level of plasma luteinizing hormone was very low in each group of animals under pentobarbital sodium anesthesia. Plasma LH levels in control animals increased to 22.25 ng/ml at 30 minutes and 18.50 ng/ml at 90 minutes after injection of D-C-LH. However, in the rats treated with Chinese herbs such as Curcuma, the response of the pituitary to LH secretion was significantly increased after the injection of luteinizing-releasing hormone. At 90 minutes after injection, the plasma luteinizing hormone level in the Curcuma group was 55.90ng/ml, which was higher than that of the control group. group significantly increased (P<0.01).
4. Androgen-like effects: 16 male rats weighing 60-90g were taken, and both testes were removed. On the 7th day after the operation, they were divided into two groups, respectively, orally administered with Curcuma 70% alcohol infusion 10g/kg and Normal saline, once a day for 21 consecutive days. On the next day after the last administration, the animals were sacrificed, and the seminal vesicles were dissected out and weighed. Results The weights of seminal vesicles in the Curculigo group and the control group were 0.116±0.009 and 0.0679±0.003 mg/g body weight, respectively, with significant difference (P<0.01). It shows that Curcuma has androgen-like effects.
5. Adaptation effect: 5.1. Hypoxia resistance effect: 20 and 40 g/kg of Curcuma curcuma 70% alcohol infusion were administered to mice, and after 1 hour, the mice were placed in a 250ml wide-mouth bottle with a stopper, and the bottle was sealed. The survival time of mice in each group was recorded. Results The survival time of mice in curculigo 20g/kg, 40g/kg group and control group were 28.8±1.14, 33.6±1.19 and 26.8±0.77 (min, X±SE), respectively. Curcuma 40g/kg had obvious anti-hypoxia effect (P<0.001).
5.2. Anti-high temperature effect: mice were intraperitoneally injected with Curcuma 70% alcohol infusion 10g/kg, 30 minutes later, they were placed in an incubator at 45±1°C, and the total number of mice in the drug group and the control group died. Half is the boundary, and the mortality of mice in each group is recorded. Results 5 of the 20 mice in the Curculi group died (25% mortality rate), while 14 of the 20 mice in the control group died (70% mortality rate), and the difference between the two groups was significant (P< 0.05). It shows that Curcuma has anti-high temperature effect.
6. Anti-inflammatory effect: mice were intraperitoneally injected with Curcuma 70% alcohol infusion 10g/kg, cortisone 50mg/kg and normal saline, and croton oil was used to induce inflammation 30 minutes after administration. Results The swelling degrees of ear pieces in the Curculigo group, Cortisone group and control group were 9.25±1.23mg, 4.1±1.35mg and 14±1.04mg, respectively. It indicated that Curculigo had obvious inhibitory effect on experimental inflammation in mice (P<0.05).
7. Effect on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity of erythrocyte membrane:
gavage the mice with 12% water decoction of curcuma and other tonic Chinese medicine 6g/kg, once a day for 10 consecutive days. The control group was given an equal volume of water. Enzyme activity was measured. The results showed that curcuma and other tonic drugs could increase the activities of Na(+) and K(+)-ATPase.
- Antibacterial effect: 100% decoction is dredged with flat plate method,
It has an inhibitory effect on Shigella , Fuchs , and Song Shigella .
- Anti-tumor effect:
- The acetone extract of Curculigo has inhibitory effect on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma solid tumor. Lycorine can inhibit the anaerobic glycolysis of mouse ascites cancer cells, but does not affect their gasification and respiration. Since cancer cells generally use anaerobic alcoholysis as the main source of energy, it can be considered that Curcuma currant can metabolize the sugar of cancer cells. There is a certain interference effect.
- Wine currant: Take the clean currant and mix well with rice wine. After it is thoroughly moistened, stir fry it in a pot until dry, take it out, and let it dry. (100 jins of currant grass, 10-20 catties of yellow rice wine)
2. “Leigong Pao Zhi Lun”: After picking (cursed grass), wash it with clean water, scrape the epidermis, and cut the beans with a copper knife on the locust anvil Xu Da, but put it in a raw sackcloth bag, soaked it in black bean water overnight, took it out, mixed it with wine and steamed it, and took it out from Si to Hai and dried it out.
3. “Sea Herbal Materia Medica”: Curcuma chinensis, cut with a bamboo knife, soaked in glutinous rice swill.
1) Cross section of this product: 3 to 10 columns of cork cells. The cortex is broad, with occasional traces of vascular bundles, and some cells on the outer edge of the cortex contain calcium oxalate cubes. Endothelial layer is evident. Wood and outer toughness around the vascular bundle of the central column, hash. Most of the mucous cells scattered in the parenchyma are round, 60-200 μm in diameter, and contain calcium oxalate needle crystal bundles, 50-180 μm in length. Parenchyma cells are filled with starch granules.
2) Take 2 g of this product powder, add 20 ml of ethanol, heat under reflux for 30 minutes, filter, evaporate the filtrate to dryness, add 1 ml of ethyl acetate to the residue to dissolve, and take the supernatant as the test solution. Take curculoside reference substance and add ethyl acetate to make a solution containing 0.1mg per 1ml as reference substance solution. According to the thin-layer chromatography (Appendix VI B) test, draw 2 μl of each of the above two solutions and place them on the same silica gel G thin-layer plate respectively, using ethyl acetate-methanol-formic acid (10:1:0.1) as the developing solvent, Expand, take out, dry, spray with 2% potassium ferricyanide solution – 2% ferric chloride solution (1:1). In the chromatogram of the test substance, the same blue spot was displayed on the corresponding position of the chromatogram of the reference substance.
Physical and chemical identification
1) Take 1g of powder, add 10ml of water, soak overnight, soak in 60℃ water bath for 20min, and filter. Evaporate the filtrate to dryness, add 2ml of ethanol to dissolve the residue, filter, add an equal volume of 10% α-naphthol ethanol solution to the filtrate, shake well, add concentrated sulfuric acid dropwise along the equal wall, and a purple-red ring is formed at the interface between the two liquids. (check sugars)
2) Take 5g of powder, add 10ml of chloroform, soak at room temperature for 24h, and filter. The filtrate was concentrated to 3ml, and 1 drop of the concentrate was taken and dropped on the filter paper. After drying, it showed light blue fluorescence under a fluorescent lamp. Evaporate the remaining concentrated solution to dryness, add 2 ml of ethanol to dissolve, take the supernatant into a test tube, add an equal volume of 3% sodium carbonate aqueous solution, boil it on a water bath for 3-5 minutes, let it cool, add 0.5 ml of diazotization reagent, it turns red . (check lactones and coumarin)
3) Thin-layer chromatography:
Take 2g of this product powder, add 20ml of ethanol, heat and reflux in a water bath to extract for 30min, and filter. The filtrate was evaporated to dryness, the residue was dissolved in 1 ml of ethyl acetate, and the supernatant was taken as the test solution. Another curcumin reference substance was taken, and ethyl acetate was added to make a solution containing 0.1mg per 1ml, as the reference substance solution. Pipette 2 μl of each of the above two solutions, spot them on the same silica gel G thin-layer plate, develop with ethyl acetate-methanol-formic acid (10:1:0.1), take them out, dry them, and spray with 2% potassium ferricyanide- 2% ferric chloride solution (1:1), the chromatogram of the test substance shows the same blue spot on the corresponding position of the chromatogram of the reference substance.
Return to the Kidney; Liver
Note: Contraindicated for people with yin deficiency and fire.
Nourishes kidney yang, strengthens muscles and bones, dispels cold, and is used for impotence, coldness of essence, weakness of muscles and bones, cold pain in waist and knees, cold diarrhea due to yang deficiency.
Dispelling cold and dampness:
According to the classic book “Materia Medica Zhengyi”, the ancients often said that the diseases caused by consumptive exhaustion are all diseases caused by deficiency and cold. It is used for cold-damp arthralgia syndrome, such as cold pain in confidants, urgency of limbs, difficulty in walking, weakness of muscles and bones, aversion to cold and cold limbs.
Consolidating essence and stopping qi:
Curcuma is warm in nature and can enter the kidneys. Unlike aconite and cinnamon, Curcuma is warm, but it does not have the energy to develop. Impotence caused by weakness can not use Curcuma chinensis, which is used for weakness of the lower yuan, cold essence, infertility, etc.
Warming the kidney and helping the yang:
Curcuma currant is a special medicine for tonifying the yang and warming the kidney. It has similar effects as Morinda officinalis and Epimedium, but it is stronger than them. Cold limbs, excessive vaginal discharge, frequent urination, slippery sperm, cold uterus and infertility.
Strengthen muscles and bones, benefit the spirit:
used for physical fatigue, trance and other diseases. Curcuma has a small poison, if symptoms of poisoning appear, take a piece of rhubarb to detoxify.
decoction, 3-10g; or into pills, powder; or soaked in wine. External use: appropriate amount, smashed and applied.